Technical Consultancy in Textiles, Nonwovens, Technical Textiles and Geotextiles                                                                                                                                                                         

Technical Consultancy in Textiles, Nonwovens, Technical Textiles and Geotextiles

Dr. N.Balasubramanian

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Technical consultancy in Spinning NonwovensEnd breakage rateTesting of man made fibres and filamentsArticles by Dr. N.BalasubramanianRotor Spinning - Influence of opening roller and transport tube parameters, fibre integration and wrapper fibresUpgrading and Diversification of Rotor SpinningInfluence of fibre properties, preparatory and post spinning processes on yarn quality and performance in rotor spinningInfluence of Rotor, Navel parameters and Winding tension on yarn quality and performance in Rotor SpinningModern developments in rotor spinning to improve economics, productivity and electrical energy saving over ring spinningYarn Diameter Specific volume and Packing densityMerits and Limitations of Cotton fibre length testing instruments

Fields of ConsultancyAreas of consultancyContributionsTips to improve Spinning and NonwovensMy DetailsContact Me
Fields of Consultancy
  • SPINNING
  • MECHANIAL PROCESSING
  • NONWOVENS
  • TECHNICAL TEXTILES
  • GEOTEXTILES
  • TESTING
  • RELATED FIELDS

Areas of Consultancy
  • IMPROVEMENT in
    1. QUALITY
    2. PRODUCTIVITY
    3. PERFORMANCE
  • TROUBLE SHOOTING
  • PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
  • ENERGY SAVING
  • ISO 9000
  • PROJECT PREPARATION
  • MODERNISATIONTRAINING
  • MAN POWER DEVELOPMENT

Contrbutions

Important Contributions by Dr.N.Balasubramanian


  1. Testing of cotton for Fineness and Maturity - Instruments and Precautions, Spinning Textiles, 9,2015, p p22Testing of cotton for Fineness and Maturity - Instruments and Precautions
  2. Merits and limitations of cotton fibre length measuring instruments. Indian Textile J, 2014, June, p 95Merits and Limitations of cotton fibre length measuring instruments
  3. Upgrading and diversification of Rotor Spinning, Spinning Textiles, 2013, 7, 5 p52Upgradation and diversification of rotor spinning
  4. Modern developments in rotor spinning to improve economics, productivity and electrical energy saving over ring spinning, Indian Textile J,Nov 2013, p 54Modern developments in rotor spinning to improve economics, productivity and electrical energy saving over ring spinning
  5. Influence of rotor, navel parameters and winding tension on yarn quality and performance in rotor spinning, Indian Textile J, 2013, July, p29Influence of Rotor, Navel parameters and Winding tension on yarn quality and performance in Rotor Spinning
  6. Rotor Spinning - Influence of opening roller and transport tube parameters, fibre integration and wrapper fibres, Indian Textile J, 2013, May, p18,Rotor Spinning - Influence of opening roller and transport tube parameters, fibre integration and wrapper fibres
  7. Effect of comber settings on noil % in Backward and Forward Feed in Combing, Spinning Textiles, 2013,7 issue 1, p 38Backward and Forward feed in Combing
  8. Yarn diameter, Specific volume and Packing density, Indian Textile J, 2012, Oct, p 40Yarn diameter, specific volume and Packing density
  9. Nonwoven Bonding by thermalbonding, Indian Textile J, 2012, May, p 75nonwoven Bonding by thermalbonding
  10. Testing of Man made staple fibre, yarn and filament, Spinning Textiles, 2012 Jan/Feb, p 10<
  11. Ring frame End breakage Distribution, Indian Textile J, 2012 Jan, p14Ringframe Endbreakageistriution
  12. Nonwovens - Bonding by needlepunching, Asian Textile Journal, Part I,2011 Nov, p 81, Part II, 2011 Dec p51Article
  13. Yarn irregularity- Concept and Measurement, Indian Textile J, 2011, April, p20Article
  14. Nonwovens - Battformation, Indian Textile J., 2009 Dec, p33,Article
  15. Hairiness of yarns, Indian Textile J., 2007 Feb, p31Article
  16. Tips to mills for getting full benefits of modernisation, I.Textile J, 2005 Dec, p 29article
  17. Merits of Lea CSP and Lea Ratio, J. Textile Association, 2005 April, p94article
  18. Control of Count variation in Yarn, I Textile Journal 2003 January p15Article
  19. Influence of cotton quality on yarn and fabric quality and performance, I.Textile Journal, 1995 Nov p46
  20. Modifications to Drafting system at Ring frame, Indian Textile J, 2000,Sept, p31
  21. Measures for improving yarn quality and ring frame productivity, I.Textile journal, 1995, Feb, p 108 1995 March, p 20
  22. Curbing Yarn faults, I. Textile Journal, 1997 May p 12
  23. Modern Spinning systems, I. Textile Journal, 1995 Dec p 66
  24. Intimacy of Mixing and Blend variation J of Textile Association 2003 Nov-Dec p2003Article
  25. Influence of rotor speed, rotor diameter and carding conditions on yarn quality in OE spinning, Textile research J. 1983 Aug p497Article
  26. Estimation of Differential hooking by Fibrograph, Textile Research J, 1975, 45, p26Article
  27. Influence of Rotor Speed, Rotor Diameter, and Carding Conditions on Yarn Quality in Open-End>Textile Research J, 1983,53p497
  28. Comparison of Medium and Long Term Irregularities in Ring Spun and Open End Spun Yarns, Textile Research J,1982,52P651
  29. Influence of opening roller speed, rotor speed and rotor diameter in open end yarn quality, Annual conference of textile association, 1985,
  30. Influence of carding conditions on rotor spinning performance and yarn quality, Indian journal of textile research, 1985 Dec, 10, p 158
  31. Effect of adding viscose or long staple cotton on open-end and ring spun cotton yarns and fabrics, Indian J of Textile Research,1987, 12, p 57
  32. Comparative studies on air-jet and ring spun yarn fabrics, J Textile Assn. 1995 May p 23
  33. Influence of conditioning on U% of sliver, I Textile Journal 1994 June p67
  34. Measures for upgrading yarn quality with polyester blends, Man-made Textile in India 1993 Jan p14, Feb p51
  35. Optimisation of ringframe parameters, I Textile Journal 1974 Sept. p73
  36. How to effect yarn quality improvements, Textile Magazine 1991 Aug p 25
  37. Weft bars in man made fibre blend due to torsional vibration ofback rollers at speed frame, J Textile Assn 1985 Nov p183
  38. Factors affecting doubling tension and strength of voile yarns under mill conditions I Journal Textile Research, 1977 March p13
  39. Inflence of processing factors and fibre properties on arrangement of fibres in blended yarns, Textile Research J, 1970,40, p129Arrangement of fibres in blended Yarns
  40. A study of the relationship of yarn irregularity with fibre properties and its effect on yarn strength I Textile Journal, 1961 Aug 71 p 561
  41. Contribution to the study of B-L curve of cotton yarns Textile Research J 1963 Sept, 33 p697
  42. Friction Spinning A critical Review I Journal Fibre and Textile Research 1992 Dec p246
  43. Control of roller lapping in spinning, I Textile Journal, 1998 March p18
  44. Studies on some factors in carding for upgradation of cotton yarn uality, J. Textile Assn. 1993 May p11
  45. Effect of top roller weight, apron spacing and top roller setting on yarn quality, Textile Research J 1975 April p 322Article
  46. Developments in drafting at ring frame, I Textile Journal 1995 March p 20Developments in drafting
  47. Influence of fibre and processing factors on yarn Imperfections, I. Textile Journal 1995 July p 14
  48. Relation between yarn irregularity, draft and fibre properties, J Textile Institute(Trans) 1964 July 55 T377
  49. Upgrading by Apron drafting Textile Research J 1962 NovArticle
  50. Fibre properties by HVI and conventional testing at different stages of spinning, I Journal of Fibre and Textile Research 1995 June p 63
  51. Measures to reduce energy consumption in spinning, J. Textile Assn. p 115Article
  52. Influence of weft count variation on warp way creases in fabrics, I. Textile Journal, 1996 Oct p 66
  53. Influence of eccentricity in drafting roller on yarn irregularity, I Textile Journal 1998 Dec p 24
  54. Effect of spinning conditions on tensile properties of core spun yarns, J Textile Institute, 1970 Nov p534Article
  55. Modifications to drafting system for improvement in yarn quality, I Journal Fibre and Textile Research, 1995 Dec p169
  56. Improving Regularity of material at Drawframe and Speedframe,I. Textile Journal 1994 May p34
  57. Influence of conditioning on Uster U% of sliver I. Textile Journal 1994 June p48
  58. Improving yarn appearance and imperfections in the mills J Textile Assn 1977 June p67
  59. Influence of conditioning on U% of sliver, I Textile Journal 1994 June p67
  60. Improving regularity of material at Drawframe and speedframe, I Textile Journal 1994 May p34
  61. Influence of grey cloth width on warp way streakiness in fabric, I Textile Journal 1993 June p82
  62. Measures for upgrading yarn quality with polyester blends, Man-made Textile in India 1993 Jan p14, Feb p51
  63. Optimisation of ringframe parameters, I Textile Journal 1974 Sept. p73
  64. How to effect yarn quality improvements, Textile Magazine 1991 Aug p 25
  65. Contribution of ring frame drfting condition to yarn count variability in fine counts, I Journal Fibre & Textile Research 1990 Dec p198
  66. Effect of top roller weight, apron spacing and top roller setting on yarn quality, Textile Research J 1975 April p 322Article
  67. Improvements in yarn quality from Tandem card, I Journal Textile Research 1981 June p53
  68. Weft bars in man made fibre blend due to torsional vibration of back rollers at speed frame, J Textile Assn 1985 Nov p183
  69. Factors affecting doubling tension and strength of voile yarns under mill conditions I Journal Textile Research, 1977 March p13
  70. Strength and elongation of cotton, polyester and polyester,cotton blend at different stages of manufacture, Textile Research J 1974 Feb p106Article
  71. Effect of disorientation and direction of feed of hooks in input sliver on drafting irregularities and yarn quality, Textile Research J 1971 Sept. p750Article
  72. Factors affecting irregularity of post combed Drawing sliver, J Textile Association 1974 35 p75
  73. 61.Causes of twist variation, J Textile Association 1974 35 p131
  74. 65.Fibre breakages in Blow room, J Textile Association 1983 Sept, p167
  75. End breakage variation over the chase length, J Textile Institute 1975 66 T18
  76. Influence of spinning conditions on tensile properties of core-spun yarns, J. Textile Institute, 1970 Vol61 T534
  77. nfluence of Material No setting in Electronic clearer on clearing efficiency, J Textile Association, 1989 50 p151
  78. Effect of stage of blending on quality of polyester/cotton blends, Indian Textile J 1974 84 p135
  79. Translation of strength from single yarn to two fold yarn and from multiple strand to fabric with polyester, cotton and polyester/cotton blends, Textile Research J 1978 July p389Article
  80. Mixing Cost reductions by upgrading through combing, J Textile Assn. 1981 May p85
  81. A note on the determination of bulk torsional rigidity of cotton fibre, Indian Cotton Growing Review, 1961 Nov 15 p358
  82. Influence of draft distribution on irregularity, I Textile Journal 1964 Jan
  83. Influence of twill direction on fabric strength, J Textile Association 1991 May 52 p5
  84. Modifications to shuttle protector and shuttle eye cutter to reduce lashing in, J Textile Association, 1986 47 p49
  85. Needle punched Nonwovens, I Textile Journal, 1996 Aug, p 18
  86. Engineering needle punched nonwovens to achieve desired physical properties, I Journal of fibre and Textile Reearch, 1990 June p 41
  87. Tensile and aborbancy characteristics of cellulosic Non wovens, I Journal Fibre & Textile Research 1994 June p53
  88. Opening size and water permiability in Nonwoven Geotextiles, I Textile Journal 1991 June p 26
  89. Critical factors affecting properties of thermal bonded Nonwovens, I Journal of Fibre and Textile Research, 1994 Sept. p 209
  90. Some critical manufacturing parameters affecting the properties of nonwoven dust filters, I Journal Fibre & Textile Research, 1993 March p 8
  91. Critical factors affecting quality of Nonwoven carpets I Textile Journal 2003 June p13
  92. Simple modifications to reduce breakdowns and Detention times in Auto looms I Textile Journal 1994 Dec p52
  93. Influence of grey cloth width on warpway streakiness in fabric I Textile Journal 1993 June p82
  94. Influence of twill direction on fabric strength J Textile Association 1991 May p5
  95. Cotton fibre and yarn quality in export sorts in the mills BTRA Survey Report 03.1.18 1991 Aug

    Tips to Improve Spinning and Nonwovens
    • Measures to reduce Roller lapping

      1. Avoid low Microanaire and sticky cottons, Check for honey dew(Benedicts solution), sugar content and wax content; reducing sugar should not be more than 20%, wax content should not be more than 1% 2. Check Pneumafil Pressure at Ring frame, should be above 8inches at off side 3. Apply Anti Lap solution like Vickelstaff or Liquimix on cots 4. Increase the schedule for cot buffing, once in 2-3 months 5. Increase offset of front top roller 6. Avoid soft cots with p/c & p/v blends 7. Apply berkolisation treatment to cots or expose them to sunlight for 8 hours 8. Reduce RH in department 9. Reduce the amount of tint applied on polyester, should not exceed 0.2%, check compatability of tint to spinfinish 10. Check polyester fibre for spinfinish, variations in spin finich, static generation, agglomerations of oligomer on surface, abnormalities 11 Avoid damage to cots by training siders in removal of lapping 12. Use bigger diameter cots upto 30 mm for cotton and p/c blends 13. Increase weight of clearer roller, use plush type of clearer cloth

    •  Measures to improve Yarn quality

      1. Avoid low Micronaire cottons, Minimum Micronaire 20s-4, 40s-3.8, 60s-3.6, 80s -3.4, 100s -3.2, Avoid cottons with high trash and seed coat content 2. Avoid harsh Blowroom treatment, 8% Trash - 6 beating points, 5% trash i. Micronaire 4 -5 beating points ii Micronaire 3.5 - 3 beating points, 3% trash i. Micronaire 4 - 3 beating points ii. Micronaire 3.5 2.5 beating points, 2% trash - 2 beating points 3. Carding - i.Higher cylider speed permissible by card design ii.Lowerproduction rate iii. Finer hank of sliver at a given production rate 1v. Higher wire point density for cylinder v. Higher flat speed vi. Petrol washing of cylider vii. Progressive reduction in grinding schedule with age of wire 4. Combing - i. Use of half laps with higher combing cycle ii. Precision in setting of half lap to nipper and top comb depth 5. Draw Frames - i. Optimise Roller Setting and Break draft, Front Zone setting - 2.5% span length + 2-3 mm, Break draft, Breaker - 1.3, Finisher - 1.1, post combed - 1.05 2. Use lowest permissible calender roller tension draft 3. Check top roller pressure 4. Check Autoleveller performance, CV of 0.5m should be below 1.2% Speedframe 1. Optimise Back Zone setting and spacer in front zone 2. Check top roller pressure 3. Use bigger diam cots 3. Use appropriate condenser size. Ring frame 1.Optimise Ringframe draft 2. Use softer cots(65 deg.) for cotton counts 3. Use step nose bar 4. Use bigger cot diam upto 30 mm 5. Employ heavier top roller pressure 6. Optimise spacer 7. Use low break drafts 8. check for drafting defects

    • Nonwovens vs Wovens
      Merits and Limitations of Nonwovens against wovens
      Merits Limitations
      Lower Labour Employment High Cost of Equipments
      Shorter processing sequence Few Indegenous manufacturers of repute
      High Production rates Need to develop market
      Ability to process recycled and waste fibres Lower Tensile and Tear strength
      Wider width of fabrics upto 10-25m possible Low Abrasion Resistance
      Non dierectional properties of fabric due to random orientation of fibres Lower life(Very enhanced in blankets and carpets
      Higher Inplane Water permeability(especially with needle punched) Pilling tendency and boll formation
      Higher filtration Efficiency(especially with needle punched) Low strength utilisation of fibres
      Ability to take the shape of the surface to which it is laid Lack of Technical personnel with adequate knowledge and experience
      Higher Friction to soil Lack of trained operatives and fitters
      Ability to utilise the properties of fibres in a better way Difficulty in getting spare parts

    • Polyester vs Polypropylene
      • Polypropylene(PP) and Polyester(PES) are the two major fibres mainly used in Nonwovens, Industrial yarns and fabrics. It is therfore useful to have an understanding of their relative merits and limitations.Polyester is made from Dimethyl terepthalate(DMT) and Mono Ethylene Glycol. Modern processes use pure Terepthalic acid(PIA) in place of DMT. Polypropylene is a polyolefin made from a polypropylene monomer obtained from naptha. Both fibres are available as virgin and bottle grade( from regenerated material). Virgin fibre is used for apparal purposes and regenerated fibre is used in nonwovens for making carpets, floor coverings, blankets and filters.
      • The two fibres are nearly comparable in tenacity though PES is avaiable in higher tenacity grades. For industrial fabrics with higher stipulated strength PES will be able to meet the requirements.
      • Elongation is higher in PP. This gives better elasticity for material and improved moulding in moulded carpets.
      • Density of polypropylene (0.91g/cc) is much lower than that of polyester(1.38 g/cc). As a result thicker, bulkier yarns and loftier fabrics and more comfortable carpets are made with the former for a given count of yarn and area density of fabric.
      • Polypropylene is dope dyed and is available in an extensive range of colours and shades. It is therefore much easier to achieve colour and shade matching by mixing a minimum number of shades of fibres. Dope dyed polyester, on the other hand, is available only in a limited number of colours and shades. The required shade has often to be developed through R&D work or fibre has to be dyed.
      • Melting point of polypropylene (165oC) is much lower than that of polyester (260oC). Material made from this fibre are therefore not suitable in fire fighting and similar clothings where temperatures are high. Heating time, temperature and pressing time are therefore more critical in moulding with polypropylene.
      • Flame retardancy by burning rate is inferior with polypropylene than with polyester. A flame retardant compound has to be added to the binder to meet the flammability requirements in Exports with polypropylene. This adds to the costs.
      • Resistance to UV light is inferior with PP compared to PES. UV stabiliser has to be added during manufacture of polypropylene to improve its resistance to UV light.carbon black is the usually added UV stabiliser. With geotextiles and upholstry material continuously exposed to sunlight PES is more suitable than PP.
      • Polypropylene tends to form beads during carding. The beads get deeply loaded on the cylinder wire and also on the needles. There has to be a regular programme for removing the beads from the wire and needle. Achievable production rates are therefore lower with polypropylene than polyester because of card loading. Card processing problems are more acute with lower deniers and recycled fibres with polypropylene.
      • PP is highly inert to chemicals and is suitable as fishing nets and geotextiles in alkaline and acidic soils. PES on the other hand loses its strength in alkaline soils and should not be used.Strength retention of PES after immersion in aqueous solution at 95oC is given below.
        Strength retention of PES straps after immersion in aqueous solution at 95oC.
        Number of days Alkaline solution Neutral solution
        30 76% 90%
        300 38% 45%
      • PES has higher creep resistance(retention of tensile properties over long duration of time) than PP and this is a distinct advantage in geotextiles used for anchoring of soils and similar applications. Because of its low glass trangition value(Tg) PP has less creep resistance.
    My Details
    • B.Sc., Madras University, 1953
    • B.Sc(Tech), Textile Technology, Madras University, 1955
    • M.Sc., Textile Physics, Mumbai University, 1961
    • Ph.D., Textile Technology, Leeds University, 1964,
    • A.T.I., Textile Institute, Manchester
    • F.T.I., Textile Institute, Manchester, 1970
    • Hon Fellow of Textile Institute, Manchester, 2000
    • Retired Joint Director of Bombay Textile Research Assciation, 50 years experience in Research and Development
    • Consultant to leading Textile Mills and Nonwoven units
    • Research Guide for M.Sc., and Ph.D., Of Bombay University
    Contact Me
    N.Balasubramanian
    Email N.Balasubramanian
    Address:
    • Block I, Rajeswari, 36, 17th Road, Chembur, Mumbai 400071
    • old 21 New 10, Ganesh Street, Gopalapuram, Chennai 600086
      Phone: 022 25280767
      9869716298
      044 28116771

    Email: ba1ja2@yahoo.co.uk


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